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da zao 大棗; hong zao  紅棗  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

Click here to see picture of da zao herb.  按此看大棗飲片圖。

Today Applications:

Today Applications:

1. treating allergic purpura

2. treating chronic atrophic gastritis

3. treating ulcers

4. treating asthma of children

5. treating bleeding of hemorrhoids

6. treating purpura not due to low platelet count

7. treating diarrhea

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名:

Fructus Zizyphi Jujubae

Biological name:

拉丁學名:

Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. inermis Bge.

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音:

taiso (大棗), kosa (紅棗)

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音:

taecho  (大棗)

Pron.in Cantonese:

粵語發音:

daai6 zou2

Common Name:

英文名:

Chinese date, jujube

Distribution:

分 佈:

mainly distributed in Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guizhou provinces. Mainly produced in Shandong and Henan.

主要分佈於河南,河北,山東,山西,陝西,四川,貴州等省區,主產於河南新鄭,靈寶;山東陽谷,臨清,荏平,泰安等地。

Properties (characteristics):性 味﹕

sweet, warm.

甘,温。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經﹕

stomach , spleen

脾﹐胃

Actions & Indications:

主治:

For

Weakness, shortness of breath, lassitude, lack of appetite,

loose stools due to pixu (spleen deficient)

Calming the mind.

Seeds used in insomnia.

 

用於:

虛弱,氣短 ,疲倦,口味不佳,脾虛而便溏。

安神。

仁用于失眠 。

Medical function:

藥理作用﹕

Medical function:

  1. improves cAMP

  2. calms the central nervous system

  3. inhibits histamine, IgE,  and 5-HT (serotonin)

  4. protects liver

  5. improves strength of muscles

  6. inhibits cell mutation and inhibits cancer cells

  7. treating skin cancer:the active ingredients betulinic acid

  8. and maslinic acid possess the effect of inhibiting cancer cells

  9. preventing reaction in blood transfusion

  10. the flavonoids of the pits possess strong anti radical effect [1]

 

  1. 增加環 磷酸腺苷 (cAMP )

  2. 鎮靜中區神經

  3. 抑制組織胺,IgE 與 血清素 (5-HT)

  4. 保肝

  5. 增強肌肉力量

  6. 抑制細胞突變,抑制癌細胞

  7. 治皮膚癌

  8. 大棗的其中有效成份樺木酸 (betulinic acid) 與山楂酸 (maslinic acid) 對癌 細胞有抑制作用。

  9. 防止輸血時不良反應

  10. 棗核之類黄酮有很强的清除DPPH 自由基的作用 。【1】

Recent Study:

近代研 究:

  1. CNS sedative effect: it effective ingredients are the same as those in the seed which possess the sedative, hypnotic and antihypertensive effect.

  2. Liver protective effective: in study of the liver of  rabbits that have been injured by CCl4. The total serum protein obviously was higher than those of control group, after feed the decoction of da zao continuously for one week.

  3. Anti-cancer, anti-mutation: it inhibits the multiplying of cancer cells of mice.

  4. Increases the muscle strength: after continuously feeding the decoction for 3 weeks, the body weight of mice, compared to control group, increased and the swimming time increased.

  5. Da zao can increase the amount of monocytes in the body: can improve the function of mononuclear phagocyte system, protect the liver, improve the strength of the body.

  6. Da zao can increase the oxygen content of the body, nourish the cells. It is a mild tonic.

(1).中 樞神經鎮靜作用:其中有效成份與酸棗仁相同,有鎮靜,催眠和降壓的作用。

(2).肝臟的保護作用:四氯化碳損傷肝臟之家兔,喂食大棗煎 劑連續一周,血清總白蛋白與白蛋白較對照組明顯增加。

(3).抗癌抗突變作用:對小鼠有抑制癌細胞的增殖作用。

(4).增強肌力作用:連續喂食大棗煎劑三周,小鼠體重較對照組增加,而且游泳時 間增長。

(5) 大棗能提高體內單核白血細胞:吞噬細胞系統的噬功能,有保護肝臟,增強體力的作用。

(6) 大棗能使血中含氧量增強,滋養全身細胞,是一種藥效緩和的強壯劑。

 

據中藥免疫 學中說:
(1).對cAMP的影響:大棗 中含豐富的cAMP樣物質,人口服後末稍血漿及白血 球細胞內的cAMP含量均明顯上升,cAMP/ cGMP比值上升,這是 大棗抗過敏的藥理機制。服用大棗之方劑,如
葛根 湯, ,麥門冬湯,小柴胡湯後末梢白血球細胞內的cAMP含量較對照組高

出10~15倍 ,如 此等方劑除去大棗後則無此作用。哮喘病人白血球細胞中cAMP/ cGMP比值低於正常,服小青龍湯加大棗後比值上升,引起支氣管 擴張而起平喘作 用。鑒於cAMP有 廣泛生理效應,對免疫功能亦有 重要影響,故大棗很值得研究。

(2)對抗體產生影響:以大鼠的嗜同種抗體作指標,大棗的酒精萃取物能抑制抗體 產生,作用強度為100毫克相當於硫唑嘌呤(Imuran)5~10毫 克的劑量。

(3).護肝及增強體力等作用:小白鼠灌服大棗湯後三周,體重增加,體力增強( 游泳時間延長)。對四氯化碳損傷了肝臟的家兔,能使其血清 總蛋白及 白蛋白量較對照組明顯增加,故有促進生長,增強體力及 護肝作用。

以上中文部 分來 源:http://www.dharma.com.tw/x2gb/d32health/H417WellSupply10.htm

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例:

gan mai da zao tang 甘麥大棗湯,

gui pi tang  歸脾湯,

ge gen tang 葛根湯,

gui zhi tang 桂枝湯

xing su san 杏蘇散

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕

(1) Organic acid: betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, catechin, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic  acid, stearic acid, myristic acid.

(2) 3-O-trans-p-counmaroyl maslinic acid, 3-O-cis-pcoumaroyl  maslinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid, 2-O-trans-p-coumarolyl alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl

alphitolic acid, zizyphus saponin I, II, II and jujuboside B. Jujuboside A & B. Zizybeoside I & II, zizyvodide I & II and roseoside.

(3) Stepharine, N-nornuciferine, asimilobine and daechualkaloic A.

(4) 6, 8-di-C-glucosyl-2 (S)-naringenin; 6, 8-di-C-glucosyl-2 (R) -naringenin; swertisin; spinsin; 6'''-sinapoylspinosin; 6'''-feruloylspinosin; 6'''-p-coumaroylspinosin.Rutein can be as high as 3385mg/100g.

(5) Sugar: sugar content in fresh da zao can be higher than 40%, mainly glucose.

(6)Vitamins: vitamin C in fresh da zao can be higher than 540~972/100g. Also contain riboflavine, thiamine, carotene, nicotinic acid.

(7) Other ingredients: sitosterol, stigmasterol, desmasterol, resin, catechol, tannin, essential oil, thirteen kinds of amino acids, selenium, calcium, phosphorous,  iron, cAMP and cGMP. Cyclic AMP of the fresh fruit can be as high as 100~500 nmol/g and cGMP as high as 30~60 nmol/g.

Dosage:

用量:

3 to 10 pieces

三枚至十枚。

Cautions:

禁忌﹕

Da zao promotesdamp heat (infection of the digestive tract). 
It creates flatulence, indigestion, promotes parasites, bad teeth. 
Do not use in case of heat type of cough or in case of yeast infection.
Do not use large amount in cases of  pixu (spleen deficient) and digestion is weak.

According to the Whole Nation of Japan Farmers' Federation, the five kinds of Chinese herb being sold in the market, chen pi, su ye, da zao, jie shishan zhu yu have been tested and showed they contain farm chemical residues. Although there is a suspicion of conflict of interest but the creditability is high. It is better to soak the herb in water and wash it thoroughly before use.

日本農民運動全國聯合會報告目前日本市場上流通銷售的陳 皮蘇葉大棗桔實山茱萸五種中藥藥材被檢驗出有六種農藥殘留﹔並以陳皮含量最高。雖然報告單位可能被懷疑有利益衝突﹐可信性相當高。使用時最好先用水浸洗乾淨。.

 
大棗助濕熱,令人中滿。故濕盛,脘腹脹滿,食積,蟲積,
齲齒作痛,以及痰熱咳嗽或者均忌服。 脾虛消化不良者,不可服用太多。

 

Note:  da zao are black in color and hong zao are smaller and red in color. Both are from

the same kind of fruit. When the fruit are blanched slightly in boiling water, and dried

under the sun, they are called hong zao (red jujube).

Da zao are the hong zao that has been cooked with cotton seed oil mixed with pine smoke water solution and smoked dry.

The pits contain flavonoids that possess a very strong scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals 【1】

In popular belief, the pits promote heat and frequently are removed before using. The editor has not seen any classical Chinese medical literature mentioning that the pits are hot in characteristics.

註:紅棗為新鲜棗果直接晒而 成的。大棗(黑棗)為紅棗在棉子油,煙 水中煮熟,再用煙火熏烤成的。

棗核含類黄酮對DPPH自由基有很强的清除活性【1】。民間認為棗核性熱。常將棗核除去。编者没看到有中醫古典書籍提到棗核性熱。

【1】http://www.chnfood.cn/data/upload/download/14_985mGs.pdf

 

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Last update: Nov 26, 2013; 9 p.m. LAH