and Chinese 中英文)
Ginkgo Biloba (bai guo) 白果
Hing Kwok Chu
Semen Ginkgo Bilobae
|Latin botanical name﹕
|Pronounced in Japanese﹕
ginkyo (yin guo)
|Pronounced in Korean﹕
unhaeng (yin xing)
|Pronounced in Cantonese﹕
bak kwo, ngen kwo,
yin xing 銀杏 , yin guo 銀果
from temperate zone to
and some parts of north America. In the subtropical zone, usually they
are found in the higher altitude where the climate is cooler.
|Parts Being Used﹕
were used. Now leaves are also being used for making extracts.
sweet, bitter, astringent,
neutral, mildly toxic and very toxic for children.
In the classical text
of "Ben Cao Pin Hui Jing Yao" it states that the characteristics
of the leaves of yin xing are bitter sweet, astringent, neutral. and belong
to the lung meridian and can control the lungs and calm asthma, calm the
mind and arrest pain, rid of water retention and stop diarrhea.
|channel (meridian) relation﹕
nuts: kidney, lung
|Actions & Indications﹕
bai guo nuts:
As a tonic. Lowers
in blood. Expels phlegm and stops wheezing cough. Eliminates
damp heat, dampness
and stops vaginal discharge in
spermatorrhea (involuntary discharge of semen without orgasm), and frequent
Uses of extract of ginkgo
cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the blood vessels of the
brain: angina, arrhythmia, ischemia of the brain, edema of the brain,
hardening of the brain arteries, brain infarction, high viscosity of
blood, high blood lipids, high cholesterol, claudication (間
歇性跛行), arterial embolization, plebitis, vein dysfunction etc.
premature senility, vascular dementia,
memory impairment, aphasia, reading difficulty, Parkinson's disease,
swallowing disorder after stroke, vestibular
disorder (前庭障礙), para-sympathetic nervous system
disorder, dizziness, vascular type of headache, anxiety, depression,
neuropathy, disease of the retina, macular degeneration
diabetic retinopathy, retina arterial sclerosis.
of the respiratory system: chronic bronchitis, TB, baby pneumonia, respiratory
tract syncytial virus pneumonia (pneumoviridae), bronchopneumonia
(capillary bronchitis), children chronic bronchitis, children asthmatic
of the urinary tract: urolithiasis,
applications: protection in transplant rejection, pimples, anti fungus,
scalding from hot liquid, allergies, chronic hepatitis B, acute pancreatitis,
usage of the ginkgo leave extract is in cardiovascular therapy (including
dementia caused by circulation dysfunction.)
From the seeds:
1. Flavin type of compounds (黄酮類化合
hepatasacetyl kaempferol glucoside, kaempferol-3(6'-p-coumaroyl-glucosy1)-b-1,rh-amnoside]
quercetin (槲皮素), isorthamnetin
quercetin 3-glucoside , rutin .
(2) flavin and its glucosides﹕
heptaacetyl luteolin glucoside,
dihydro-epicatechin-pentaacetate, dihydro-gallocatechin-hexacetate, dihydro-epigallocatechin-hexacetate,
are derivatives of catechin .
bilobetin, ginkgetin, sciadopitysin,
I-5'-methoxy-bilobetin, a-mentoflavone 
ginkgolic acid, hydroginkgolic acid,
ginkgolinic acid, ginkgol, bilobol ,
3. Organic acids
quinic acid, linoleic acid, shikimic
acid, asorbic acid . Skin contains formic acid, propionic
acid, butyric acid, caprylic acid.
4. Alcohol groups
a-hexenol, sequoyitol, pinite, hexacosanol-1,
octacosanol-1 , b-sitosterol , nonacosyl alcohol-10
5. Trace minerals and others
ginkgo-B (a saponin), d-sesamin
. Seed contains small amount of cyanophoric glucoside, gibberellin,
cytokininlike substances. Protein 6.4, fat 2.4, carbohydrates 36%,
calcium10 mg, phophorus 218 mg, iron, carotene 320 mg, riboflavine
50 mg, various amino acids. External skin contains
From the leaves and branches:
(白果内酯), ginkgolide,B, (銀杏萜内酯B), ginkgolide C, (銀杏萜内酯C ), vanillic
acid, (香草酸), protocatechuic acid, (原兒茶酸 ), daucosterol,
(胡蘿蔔貳)，octacosanol, (二十八醇 ), triacontanoic acid, (三十烷酸).
on Respiratory System
on Smooth Muscles
on Circulatory System
on Brain Circulation
on Free Radicals
of Anti Bacteria
ginkgo nuts are toxic. Over consuming can cause vomiting, pain in the
abdomen, diarrhea, muscle spasm, anxiety and difficulty in breathy. 
Some classical medical literature reported that over consuming had caused
death in a group of refugees. The outer skin of the fruit contains ginkgo
toxin. Ginkgo phenols and ginkgo toxin possess effect of hemolysis. Ginkgo
toxin possesses an anesthetic effect on the central nervous system of
frogs. A venous injection of 0.2g/kg on rabbits caused temporary raising
of blood pressure then with subsequent dropping of blood pressure, breathing
difficulty, panic and death. Using the neutral portion of the gingko seed
for skin injection of 6mg/kg had also caused death in mice. Using a
large dosage of ginkgo leaf extract for venous injection continually for
one week on dogs causes salivating, vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of appetite.
In lab examination of tissues, it shows the increase of mucus secretion
of the lower abdomen. Local injection causes local blood vessels to harden.
It shows that in dogs and rabbits under anesthesia, the movement of intestines
increases. A normal amount of flavonol does not affect the blood clotting
time. A large dosage can interfere with the blood clotting time. Venous
injections of 242mg/kg, in 95% of the cases, 229.6~256.2/kg could be the
fatal limits), of di-flavonol were applied to mice and caused acute toxicity
symptoms of rapid breathing, sprawling still, and eventually all died
of breathing paralysis.
痛，腹瀉，肌肉痙攣，焦慮和呼吸困難。 [31 ] 一些古典醫學文獻報導，一批逃難的難民在白果樹林拾取白果煮熟當飯吃造成的集體死亡。水果的外皮
子，腸增加運動。正常量的黃酮醇，不影響血液凝固的時間。大劑量可對血液凝血時間干擾。 242mg/kg二黃酮醇的（在95 ％的情況下， 229.6
〜 256.2/kg可能是致命的限制） ，靜脈注射被應用於小鼠，導致呼吸急促的急性毒性症狀，仍然蔓延，最終全部死亡的呼吸麻痺。 [ 31]
|Present Day Applications:
(formation of calculi in the urinary tract.)
root of gingko biloba 120 g, rock cane sugar 120 g. Boil with water. Taken
orally. 4~5 doses a week. If there is infection of urinary track, use
Ba Zheng San
hua she she cao. Drink plenty of liquid and excercise (editor note:
preferably qigong dong gong). Out of fifty patients, thirty two were healed.
Ten patients were improved. Eight patients did not improve. Average
treatment time was 133 days. 
See usages of leave extract.
|Sample of Formulae:
Ding Chuan Tang for asthma,
Bai guo nuts
very toxic for children. When using bai guo for
asthma therapy, the effective dosage is very close to toxic quantity.
Cooking can only destroy the cyanide by hydrolysis but cannot destroy
the toxicity caused by ginkgo phenols and ginkgo toxin.
amount of flavonol does not affect the blood clotting time. A large dosage
can interfere with the blood clotting time. Venous injections of 242mg/kg
(in 95% of the cases, 229.6~256.2/kg could be the fatal limits),
of di-flavonol were applied to mice and caused acute toxicity
symptoms of rapid breathing, sprawling still, and eventually all
died of breathing paralysis.
Ginkgo trees do not tolerate high heat or extreme
cold. Although the trees are found in more than twenty provinces in China but
many locations they do not bear fruits or bear scanty amount of fruits. In Guilin
of Guangxi province in southern part of China,
where the altitude is between 280 meters to 600 meters, where the four seasons
are distinct, and with abundance of rain water
and fertile soil, the ginkgo trees grow well. It is one of the main ginkgo production
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