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Kǔ Shēn 苦參         (in English and Chinese)

 

See picture of herb here.     按此看飲片圖

 

Translated and edited by: Joe Hing kwok Chu

 

Present Day Applications:

現代應用﹕

acute diarrhea due to infection

急性感染性腹瀉

inflammation of the intestine due to fungal infection

霉菌感染的腸炎

trichomoniasis infection of the intestine

腸滴虫病

chronic inflammation the rectum

直腸慢性發炎

giardiasis infection

腸梨形鞭毛蟲病感染

pinworm infection

蟯蟲感染

eczema

濕疹

palpitation

心悸

asthma

哮喘

hepatitis B

乙型肝炎

inflammation of the aesophagus

食道發炎

tonsillitis

扁桃腺炎

insomnia

失眠

decrease of white cell count

白血球减少

vagina infection

陰道感染

scalding injuries

燙傷

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名﹕

Radix Sophorae

Biological name:

拉丁文學名﹕

Sophora japonica

Sophora flavescens Ait.

Sophora subprostrata

Sophora alopecuroidesd

Pron. in

Japanese:

日語發音﹕

kujin

Pron. in

Korean:

韓語發音﹕

kosam

Pron. in

Cantonese:

粵音﹕

fu sam

Other Names:

別 名:

ku gan cao, ku shen cao, ku dou gen, xi dou gen, ku ping zi, ye kuai gen, shan kuai gen, gan ren shen, ku gu.

苦甘草﹐苦参草﹐苦豆根,西豆根,苦平子,野槐根﹐山槐根﹐干人参﹐苦骨。

Common Name:

普通英文名﹕

sopora root

Distribution:

產地﹕

Desert area of northern part of China, especially in Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia. It is mainly found in the desert area of Ningxia.

北方沙漠地區,尤以寧夏﹐甘肅﹐青海﹐新疆及内蒙古為多。并主要分佈在寧夏的鹽池﹐靈武﹐陶樂等沙漠和荒漠地區

Properties (characteristics)﹕

性味﹕

bitter, cold

,

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經﹕

bladder, heart, liver, large intestine, small intestine.

膀胱﹐心﹐肝﹐大腸﹐小腸

Medical Functions:

藥理﹕

Medical Functions:

  1. diuretic: the decoction contains matrine. In a study when matrine is given to rabbits, either orally or by injection, can promote urination. Before the increase in urination, there was increase of the expel of salt. The number of rabbits in the study was small and it did not mention the water intake. Some people deemed that it should be further investigated.

  2. antibiotic effect: the high concentrated decoction of the herb (1:100) can inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.  Decoction of 8%, in various degrees, can inhibit the fungi of the skin in vitro.

  3. anaesthesia effect on CNS: injecting matrine into rabbits, it showed the anaesthesia effect on the CNS, created spasm, eventually the breathing stopped and died. When injected to frogs, the reaction was stimulation initially then followed by paralysis, the breathing slowing down and irregular. Eventually followed by spasm and breathing stopped and died. The spasm could be caused by spinal reflex. The minimum amount the that could cause death on rabbit was 0.4g/kg.

  4. anti virus effect on hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The ingredient Oxymatrine(C15H24N2O2) possesses a strong anti HBV effect in vitro in animal studies, also in human it show in the same effect in vivo. Now there are many reports on using it for chronic viral hepatitis.  [1]

  5. anti tumor

  6. anti-inflammatory effect

  7. sedative effect

藥理

  1. 利尿作用:
    苦參煎劑:含之苦參鹼給兔口服或注射,皆可產生利尿作用,尿量增加前既有鹽分排出之增多。但實驗中所用家兔之數目較少,又未敘述飲水控制之情況,因而有人認為需進一步研究.

  2. 抗病原體作用: 煎劑在試管中,高濃度(1:100)對結核杆菌有抑制作用。煎劑(8%),水煎劑在體外對某些常見的皮膚真菌有不同程度的抑制作用。
     

  3. 其他作用: 苦參鹼注射於家兔,發現中樞神經麻痺現象,産生痙攣,終由呼吸停止而死。注射於青蛙,初呈興奮,繼則麻痺,呼吸變為緩慢而不規則,最後發生痙攣,以致呼吸停止而死;其痙孿的發作,恐系起因於脊髓反射。對家兔的最小致死量為0.4克/公斤.
     

  4. 氧化苦參素鹼的抗乙型和丙型肝炎病毒效應. 氧化苦參素鹼在體外和在動物模型中顯示對 HBV 有強有力的抗病毒活性,在人體內同樣具有抗 HBV 作用,已有不少的報道用於治療慢性病毒性肝炎。
     

  5. 抗癌.

  6. 抗炎作用

  7. 鎮静作用。

Actions & Indications:

用途﹕

For dysentery with blood, pain in intestine area, bleeding in the urinary tract, parasites, leprosy.

Seeds are called ya dan zi. Seeds are being used in chronic diarrhea.

治溫病血痢,腸風溺赤,黃疸酒毒,又能袪風逐水,殺蟲,治大風疥癩。

子名鴉膽子,能治久痢。

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕

  生 物 鹼 (alkaloids) :

  1. 苦参鹼 (Matrine,C15H24N2O)

  2. 氧 化 苦 參 鹼 (oxymatrine,C15H2
    4N2O2)

  3. 槐醇(Sophoranol, C15H24N2O2), (羥 基 苦 參 鹼)

  4. 槐 果 鹼(Sophocarpine,C15H22N2O)

  5. 氧化槐果 鹼(N-oxysophocarpine,C15H22N2O2)

  6. 穿 葉 贗 靛 鹼 ( Baptifoline ) ,

  7. 臭 豆 鹼 ( Anagyrine )

  8. 異苦参 鹼(Iosmatrine,C15H24N2O)

  9. 槐啶 鹼(Sophoridine,C15H24N2O)

  10. 苦豆 鹼(Aloperine)

  11. 金雀花 鹼(sparteine)

  12. N-甲基金雀花 鹼(N-methylcytisine)

  13. 安那吉鹼(anagyrine)

  14. 膺靛葉鹼(bapiifoline)

  15. 脱氫苦参 鹼 (sophocarpine)

  16. d-苦参鹼(d-Matrine)

  17. d-異苦参鹼(d-isomatrine)

  18. d-氧化苦参鹼(d-Oxymatrine)

  19. l-臭豆鹼(l-Anagyrine)

  20. l-甲基金花鹼(l-Methyleytisine)

  21. l-穿葉赝靛鹼(Baptifoline)

  22. 苦参啶(kuraridin)

  23. 氧化槐醇鹼(SophoranholN-oxide,C15H24N2O3)

  24. 甲基野靛鹼(N-methylcytisine,C12H16N2O)

  黃 鹼 素 類 (Flavones):

  1. 苦 參 黃 鹼 素 ( Kurarinol ) ,

  2. 新 苦 參 異 鹼 素 ( Neokurarinol ) 等 。

黄酮類 (Flavonoids)﹕

  1. 去甲苦参酮(降苦参酮,norkurarinone,C25H28O6)

  2. 苦参啶醇(kuraridinol)

  3. 苦参醇(kurarinol)

  4. 新苦参醇(neo-kurarinol)

  5. 去甲苦参醇(norkurarinol),

  6. 異苦参酮(isokurarinon,C26H30O6)

  7. 高麗槐素(maackiain,C16H12O5)

  8. 4-甲氧基高丽槐素(4-methoxy-maackiain,C17H14O6)

  9. 三葉豆紫檀甙(trifolirhizin,C22H22O10)

  10. 降脱水淫羊藿素(nor-anhydroicaritin,C20H18O6)

  11. 槐属二氫黄酮B(sophoraflavanoneB,C20H20O5)

  12. 芒柄花素(formoronetin,C16H12O4)

  13. 黄腐醇(xanthohumol)

  14. 異黄腐醇(isoxanthohunol)

  15. 3,4`5-三羟-7-甲氧-8-異戊烯基山柰酚(3,4`5-Tri-7-Meth-8-prenylkeamferol)

葉含﹕木犀草素-7-葡萄糖甙                          

Leaves contain:   Luteolin-7-glucoside

fatty acid and essential oil:

There 20 known fatty acid, mainly unsaturated fatty acid, consisting 72.9% of total fatty acid. Among them 48.95% is linoleic acid.

 

脂肪酸和揮發油:

20种脂肪酸成份,主要為不飽和脂肪酸,其含量占脂肪酸總 量的72.79%,其中亞油酸相對含量为48.95%.

 

Also contains: oxalic acid

另含: 草酸

Per day Dosage:

每日用量﹕

3 to 10 g; concentrated extract: 0.5 to 2 g.

3~10克;濃縮中藥:0.52克。

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例﹕

For itchiness: use ku shen 150 g. Soak in 2,000 cc of water an hour. Bring to boil. Simmer till 1,000 cc is left. Wash affected area. Twice a day.

Hair loss caused by excessive sebum:

cang er zi, wang bu liu xing, ku shen, bai fan, bing pian (put in later)

. Boil with water. Wash hair and scalp.

苦參煎劑止瘙癢﹕ 苦參150克,加水2000毫升,先浸泡一小時,待燒開後,用文火煎至1000毫升,分成兩次,每天早晚用來洗浴患處。

脂溢性脫髮:

抑制皮脂腺的分泌,減輕頭皮的慢性炎症,改善毛囊活性,促使新髮生長。

蒼耳子王不留行 苦参,  白 礬 冰 片(後下)  [2]

加水煎湯。過濾。加入冰片。薰洗頭髮。

[2] 1993年李玉霞等報導

Modern

Research:

現代研究﹕

A study by managed by Zhu Ning Xi (朱寧希) et al of  Zhejiang School of Chinese Medicine, shows that alkaloids of ku shen can induce the demise of leukemia cells and also it shows that the alkaloids of ku shen has synergic effect with arsenic trioxide. Ku shen may have a wide range of application in the foreseeable future.[1]

朱寧希,呂慶華,董慶華,沈建平,虞榮喜,鄭樹。維生素K3和三氧化二砷在誘導白血病細胞凋亡中的協同作用。[1]

[1] 中華血液學雜志 2000;21(1):605-606

Cautions:

禁忌﹕

It is very cold and bitter, those with liver and kidney deficient but without heat do not use. Not compatible with bei mu. tu si zi, lou lu, and antagonizes li lu..

Large dosages and/or long term usage can be toxic to kidneys.

30 g can be toxic amount.

大劑量或長期服用可能對腎臟有毒

大苦大寒,肝腎虛而無熱者勿服。惡貝母菟絲子漏蘆,反藜蘆

30 克 可能是有毒之剤量。

  参考: 浙江中醫雜誌報導; 1993年李玉霞等

[1] Li Jiqiang, et al., A preliminary study on therapeutic effect of oxymatrine in treating patients with chronic hepatitis C. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine 1998; 18(4): 227-229.

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