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gou_qi_zi.htm lycium_barbarum.htm qi_zi.htm

    

gou qi zi (fruit) 枸杞子          (in English and Chinese 中英文)

di gu pi (bark of the plant) 地骨皮

gou qi ye (leaves of the plant) 枸 杞葉

Translated and edited by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

To enlarge, click on the picture.

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名

Fructus Lycii

Biological name:

拉丁文學名

Lycium barbarum L.or L chinense Mill

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音﹕

kukoshi

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音﹕

kugicha

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵音﹕

gau2 gei2 zi2

Common Name:

英文名:

Chinese wolfberry fruit, lycium fruit, goji berries, desert-thorn, Christmas berry, wolfberry ,  matrimony vine, and Duke of Argyll's tea tree.

Distribution:

分佈:

Ninxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia (L. barbarum), Hebei (L. chinense)

寧夏﹐甘肅﹐ 青海﹐內蒙 (L. barbarum), 河北 (L. chinense)

Properties (characteristics)

性味:

sweet, neutral

甜﹐ 平。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經:

liver, lung, kidney

肝﹐肺﹐腎。

Actions & Indications:

主治:

nourishes and tonifies the liver and kidney; alleviates sore back, leg, and stomach; improves night vision, blurred vision, diabetes, premature white hair and consumption. The leaves and bark can be used for hot flashes and cough due to consumption.  The leaves can be used for tonifying deficiency and to get rid of anxiety, pain in joints and skin, and the toxin from boils.

有補腎,滋陰,養肝, 明目,益氣等功 效。適用於腎虧遺精,腰膝酸軟,頭暈目眩,兩眼昏花,糖尿病,鬚髮早白,虚勞。其葉與皮可用於陣 熱,勞咳。葉亦可用於補虚,去煩,關節或皮膚疼痛,瘡毒。

Medical Function:

藥理:

Medical Function:

  1. improves and regulates immune system.

  2. anti-aging properties  : a study on 43 healthy senior adults in which each ate 50 grams of qi zi continuously for 10 days (as a therapy period). The blood tests showed that immune indicators IgA, IgG and lymph cell conversion rate were elevated, cAMP increased, cGMP decreased. The ratios of cAMP/cGMP were elevated to healthy levels. Testosterone were elevated.

  3. lowers blood lipids,

  4. elevate level of testosterone

  5. protects liver function, prevents fatty liver

  6. contains anti-cancer properties

  7. simulates estrogens

  8. improves white blood cell counts during chemotherapy

  9. fruit, stems and leaves can lowers blood sugar

  10. fruit, stems and leaves can lower blood pressure

  11. anti-oxidant

  12. taking gou qi zi can increase the weight of the uteri of mature and immature mice.

  13. enhance memory

  14. its chemical ingredients lutein and zeaxanthin can prevent macula degeneration caused by free radicals or external causes.

  15. improves condition of diabetic retinopathy [3]

  16. against Abeta (beta-amyloid) neurotoxicity

  17. toxicity is minimal

藥理:

  1. 對機體免疫功能的作用 ﹕能顯著提高吞噬細胞的吞噬百分率和吞噬指數,還可提高因放 射療法或惡性腫 瘤所導致的免疫功能下降的患者的淋巴細胞轉化率,和吞噬細胞的吞噬率,以提高患者的免疫能力。

  2. 抗衰老之作用 ﹕曾實驗四十三 例無明顯疾病的志願老人,每日嚼服50g,連續十天為一療程,療程結束後抽血檢查,免疫功能指標可見IgA﹐IgG 和淋巴 細胞轉換率明顯提高,反應有向年輕化逆轉的傾向。

  3. 降血脂

  4. 促進高睪丸酮之分泌,起著強壯 的作用。

  5. 對肝臟的保護作用﹕枸杞水浸液 對四氯化碳引起的肝損害,有輕微的抑制脂肪在肝細胞內沈積,和促進肝細胞新生的作用。

  6. 抗癌作用

  7. 促進雌激素之分泌。

  8. 對造血系統的影響 ﹕枸杞可促 進造血機能恢復,臨床可以考慮與化療藥物合用,預防和緩解白細胞減少症。

  9. 枸杞 葉與枸杞子 都有降血糖作用

  10. 枸杞 葉與枸杞子 都有降血壓作用

  11. 對子宮的作用 ﹕枸杞子對未成 熟或成熟的小鼠,均有明顯的促進子宮增重的作用。

  12. 抗氧化作用

  13. 增強記憶力

  14. 其玉 蜀黍黄素與 葉黃素對於眼睛因為自由基或是外在因素所造成的視網膜黃斑部退化症有預防作 用

  15. 改善糖尿病的視網膜病變

  16. 對抗β-澱粉樣蛋白( Abeta)之神經毒性【3】

  17. 毒性小

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份:

,

quercetin-rhamno-di-hexoside was present in largest mass fraction (438.6microg/g), followed by quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (281.3microg/g), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (250.1microg/g), chlorogenic acid (237.0microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamnohexoside) (117.5microg/g), quercetin-di-(rhamno)-hexoside (116.8mug/g), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (97.7microg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (72.1microg/g), p-coumaric acid (64.0microg/g), caffeic acid (23.7microg/g) and vanillic acid (22.8microg/g).[2]

betaine

甜菜碱

β-sitosterol

β-穀甾醇

linoleic acid

亞麻油酸

physalien

酸漿果紅素

cryptoxanthin

隱黃素

atropine

阿托品

hyoscyamine

莨菪鹼

scopoletin

香豆素

trace minerals

微量礦物 質

amino acids

氨基酸

ash: 1.7%

其灰分约1.7%

Physalein:

酸漿红素

  Zeaxanthin

 玉蜀黍黄素

  dipalmitate

 雙 棕 櫚 酸酯

Every 100 g of seed contains:

每100g枸杞子 含 ﹕

carotene

胡萝卜素3.96mg

lutein <30 g

葉黃素 <30 g

zeaxanthin 30 mg

玉蜀黍黄素 30 mg

thiamine

维生素B10.23mg 或稱硫胺素

riboflavin

维生素B20.33mg(核 黃素)

nicotinic acid

烟酸1.7mg

ascoric acid

维生素C3mg

calium 150mg

鈣 150mg

phosperous 67mg

磷67mg

iron 3.4mg

鐵 3.4mg

water extract pH5.5

浸出液pH5.5

According to AcДaHoB of Russia, the seed contain:

蘇 聯 AcДaHoB等分析, 種 子 含 :

fat 17.21%

脂肪油量為 17.21%

oil refractive Index: 1.4743

油折光率為 1.4743

total acidity: 1.28

酸價為 1.28

total iodine: 119.2

碘價為 119.2

sugar 22~52%

含總糖量22~52%

protein 13~21%

蛋白质13~21%

coarse fat 8~14%

粗脂肪8~14%

Dosage:

用量:

root, bark and fruit: 6 to 15 g per day.  

Leaves are used as a vegetable.

地骨皮,杞子:6 ~15克

葉作菜用。

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例:

For spermatorrhea: gou qi zi 6 g, wu wei zi 2 g, rou cong rong 2 g, ren sheng 2 g, fu ling 3 g, shu di huang 3 g, da zao 3 g, sheng jiang 2 g, gan cao 2 g. Cook in 600 cc of water and simmer to 300 cc. Make into 3 servings per day. (source He Han Yao Yin Yong Fang)

For improving sperm count and sperm activity: wu zi yan zong wan

For premature white hair: gou qi zi 15 g, rice 30 g. Make into porridge. Use daily. (folk formula)

For dry eyes and blurry eye sight: retinitis, glaucuma, geriatric cataract, optic nerves atrophy, detachment of retina, sequela of concussion, high blood lipids: qi ju di huang wan

  1. 遺精:枸杞子 6 克, 五味子  2 克, 肉從蓉 2 克,人参 2 克,茯苓 3 克,熟 地黄 3 克,大棗 3 克,生姜 2 克,甘草 2 .加水600毫升。煎成300毫 升。分三次服。(和漢藥應用方)

  2. 增强精 虫活性與數量:五 子衍宗丸

  3. 少年白 髮:枸杞子15克,米30克。煮成粥。每日服用。(民間驗方)

  4. 乾眼與力 模糊:網 膜炎 ,青光眼,老年性白內障,視神經乳頭炎,視神經萎縮,視網膜脫落等,腦震蕩遺 症,高脂血症等 。:杞 菊地黃丸

Modern Research:

現代研究:

neuro-protective effect 保護神經系统 作用

Protective effect of Lycium barbarum on the cancer drug, Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity [1]

Caution:

禁忌﹕

Not to use in cases external heat, (like cold or flu,  swelling with inflammation), spleen deficient (pixu) with dampness and loose stool or diarrhea.

An increased INR value was noted with concurrent use of warfarin and qi zi.Thus, combination of L. barbarum L. and warfarin should be avoided.  [1]

實 熱﹐脾 虛濕滯及腸滑便溏者忌服。

發現與華佛林(warfarin) 同用 INR 值會增高。所以两者不應同用。[1]

Quality:

品質鑒別﹕

The better quality qi zi is from Zhong Ning Area.

 Quality identification:

  1. Shape: oblong--not round--but not thin.

  2. Color: red or purplish red except for petals.

  3. Petal area: obviously white. If artificial color has been added, the areas where the petals are will be tinted. Artificial coloring is a sign that the seed is of lower quality. Artificial coloring can be toxic.

  4. Dryness: the water content should be about 12% to !3%. The seeds should not lump together. Test for dryness by  squeezing them together and then releasing pressure.  Good quality seeds should not lump together; they should become loose when the pressure is released.

  5. Taste: sweet. The seeds should not taste acrid.

  6. Smell: the smell is fragrant once the package is opened.

  7. Sinking test: When dropped into water, the seeds should  float for sometimes and should not sink in a short time.

  8. Watch for glister under the sun. It can be residue of alum or sulfur that has been sublimated from smoking where most sulfur has turned to sulfur dioxide and a small portion can be sublimated to the fruits. If alum has been added the herb feel coarse and dry to touch, and will taste tart or/and sour by licking the herb.

National Quality Inspection Agency of China has banned the use of sulfur dioxide to preserve the fruit.

Addendum:  Carefully examine under the light to see if there is white crystal powder . If so, it may be soaked in alum water (harmful to health); or smoked with sulfur. The white powdery crystal may be the sublimation of sulfur or the residue of alum. If the berries have been soaked in alum water, they feel stiff and the taste can be sour, astringent. The side effects of alum (aluminum potassium sulfate) are osteoporosis, bone loss and memory loss.
To shorten the drying time, some small farms often use saturated alkaline water to soak the berries before drying. These processed berries seem to be bright red in color and very attractive, but their nutritional value can greatly reduced. Alkaline treated berries possess a bitter taste

In China, gou qi zi from Ningxia province is considered the best. There are merchant selling Xizang (Tibetan) gou qi zi and Xinjiang gou qi zi as Ningxia gou qi zi to fetch better prices.

 中 寧枸杞辨認七法:
中寧枸杞已被引種到全國十五個省市自治區,但無論引種到何方,均由於缺少中寧所特有的種植枸杞子的土壤條件和地理環境,使中寧枸 杞同其他引種產 區生產出的枸杞產品外觀及營養成份含量上有明顯的區別。
看果形:中寧枸杞呈橢圓扁長而不圓,呈長形而不瘦。
看果臍:中寧枸杞果臍白色明顯。
看頗色:顏色呈紅色或紫紅色。
看結塊:中寧枸杞果含水量在12%-13%之間,包裝不結塊,就是擠壓成塊,失壓能 自動鬆散。
試下沉:中寧枸杞放入清水杯子中在短時間內不下沉。
品味道:中寧枸杞皮薄肉厚,口感純正,甘甜,無苦澀味和其它異味。
聞氣味:凡是中寧枸杞一旦打開密封的包裝就有一般特殊的香味。

中寧枸杞子辨認资 料来源:摘自美食導報2002﹐11﹐15

國 家 質 檢 總 局 嚴 禁 用 硫 磺 加 工 。

補充﹕在 光照下,小心察看杞子上有無附著白色的結晶。那可能是浸過明礬水(對健康有害)﹔或是熏硫磺時﹐部份硫磺昇華結晶 於杞 子上。 浸過明 礬水的﹐觸 手會有僵硬﹐乾澀的感 覺﹔ 如輕舔藥材表面,會有酸﹐澀的味道。明礬 (硫酸鋁鉀(鉀鋁礬))的副作用可使鈣質與磷質流失而導致骨骼疏鬆,記憶減退。

為了縮短晾晒時間,有些小農場往往用超飽和的濃鹼水 浸泡枸杞,然後再加晾晒。這樣處理過的枸杞看來色澤鮮紅,十分誘人,但其營養萬分已大大降低。用鹼水處理過的枸杞有苦澀感。

有些藥商把價錢較便宜的西藏枸杞子與新疆枸杞子當作寧夏枸杞子賣,以取得較高價錢。

看關於二 氧化硫處理過的乾貨

Note: the variety which is popularly sold in nurseries and grown in America is Lycium exsertum A. Gray. The fruit are not as long as Lycium barbarum which is grown in western part of China and is mainly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Usually the plants sold in America are labeled incorrectly as Lycium barbarum.

在美國一般在苗圃所賣的和一般所種的是 Lycium exsertum A. Gray。 這種杞子比起寧夏杞子較短。一般在美國賣的枸杞子樹苗都錯誤地標為 Lycium barbarum.

 

 

[1]Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Oct;35(10):1199-201.

[2]J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Feb 5;51(3):549-56. Epub 2009 Sep 11.

[3] Exp Gerontol. 2005 Aug-Sep;40(8-9):716-27.

The side effect of alum (aluminum potassium sulfate or aluminum sulfate) can include

calcium depletion through excretion (both urine and stool) caused by aluminum sulfate.

It can also depletes phosphorus in the normal body, and long-term use can bring phosphorus

down to an unnaturally low level which may cause adverse effect on memory.

中 文 化 學 成 份 來 源 ﹕ 浙 江 中 醫 大 學 。

Lutein and zeaxanthin help protect the eyes from damaging sunrays. As people get older, these carotenoids decline in the eyes, and may cause macular degeneration.

 

Note: Gou qi leaves are usually sold in Chinese grocery market as vegetable. The fresh leaves can be used as soup vegetable.

 

More info in Chinese. 中文網站。.

The following study has been published.

Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine

Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity.

Yu MS, Leung SK, Lai SW, Che CM, Zee SY, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC.

Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Anatomy,

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

As aged population dramatically increases in these decades, efforts should be made on the intervention for curing age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Natural plant extracts of Lycium barbarum are well-known to exhibit anti-aging effects. We therefore hypothesized that they exhibit neuroprotective

effects against toxins in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether extracts from L. barbarum have neuroprotective effects against toxicity of fibrillar Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(25-35) fragments. Primary rat cortical neurons exposed to Abeta peptides resulted in apoptosis and necrosis. Pre-treatment with extract isolated from L. barbarum significantly reduced the release of lactate

dehydrogenase (LDH). In addition, it attenuated Abeta peptide-activated caspases-3-like activity. The extract elicited a typical dose-dependent neuroprotective effect. Effective dosage of this extract was wider than that of a well-known western neuroprotective medicine lithium chloride (LiCl). We have further examined the underlying mechanisms

of the neuroprotective effects. In agreement with other laboratories, Abeta peptides induce a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by phosphorylation. Pre-treatment of aqueous extract markedly reduced the phosphorylation of JNK-1 (Thr183/Tyr185) and its

substrates c-Jun-I (Ser 73) and c-Jun-II (Ser 63). Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing neuroprotective effects of the extract from L. barbarum. Study on anti-aging herbal medicine like L. barbarum may open a new therapeutic window for the prevention of AD.

PMID: 16139464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Note:

Abeta peptide (amyloid β peptides) is the precursor of β-amyloid which is toxic for the neurons.

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the inter-conversion of lactate and pyruvate. It is abundant in kidney, skeletal muscle, liver and myocardium and in other tissues..It appears in elevated concentrations when these tissues are injured.

c-Jun N-terminal kinase:

see Alzheimer's disease.

 

<<中國中醫藥科技>>2004年 第11卷 第02期
作者: 張穎, 張立睦, 周紅英, 齊永秀, 蘇雪惠,

期刊-核心期刊 QCode : zgzyykj200402018
目的:測定不同產地枸杞子中黃酮的含量.方法:以蘆丁為標准品,用分光光度法測定寧夏,河北,內蒙,山東枸杞子中黃酮的含量.結果:其平均含量分別為4853.Omg/kg,4993.3mg/kg,3613.0mg/kg,2680.0mg/kg;回 收率為100.9%;RSD為1.21%.結論:不同產地枸杞子中黃酮含量存在一定差異.

 

蘆丁 Rutin
異名:芸香甙 ,維生素 P, 紫槲皮甙,  Rutoside , Violaquereitrin
化學名: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one ,3 -[(6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D- glucopyranosyl ]oxy]-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-
分子式及分子量: C27H30O16:610.51

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