by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu 按 此 看 中 文
Simple torticollis should be differentiated from atlantoaxial subluxation.
High incidences among children of 2 - 12 years old.
- rheumatoid arthritis
- juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- psoriatic arthritis
- ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammationof the spine and the sacroiliac joints)
- systemic lupus (SLE)
- Down syndrome (20%)
- Morquio disease
- atlanto-occipital fusion
- congenital absence/hypoplasia of dens (2/3 have h/o trauma)
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