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xing ren 杏仁 (北杏仁) (in English and Chinese 中英文)

 

by: Joe Hing kwok Chu

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名﹕

Semen pruni armeniacae

Latin  name:

拉丁學名﹕

Prunus armeniaca L; P.armeniaca L.var. ansu Maxim ,;

P. sibirica L. (西伯利亞杏),

P. mandshurica (Maxim.) Koehne (東北杏)

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音﹕

kyonin

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音﹕

sain

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵音﹕

hang6 jan4

Other Names:

別名 ﹕

處方名 (prescription names)xing ren 杏仁,ku xing ren 苦杏仁,kuang xing ren 光杏仁,ku he ren 杏核仁,炒杏仁,jian xing ren 尖杏仁,xing ren xiang 杏仁霜

Common Name:

英文名﹕

apricot seed or apricot kernel

Distribution:

產地﹕

Distributed in Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Guizhou provinces of China.

分佈黑龍江、遼寧、吉林、內蒙古、河北、河南、山東、江蘇、山西、陝西、甘肅、寧夏、新疆、四川、貴州等地。

Properties

(characteristics)﹕

性味﹕

warm, bitter, and slightly toxic.

性溫 味苦 有小毒。

Channels (meridians) entered:

 

歸經﹕

lung, large intestine.

肺與大腸經。

Medical functions:

藥理﹕

 

Arresting cough and calming asthma effect
Laxative effect
anticancer effect
ku xing ren oil can soften the cuticle of the skin, moistening skin, protect the blood vessels and nerve endings, tissues and organs, and has antibiotic effect.

The enzymatic hydrolysis can generated hydrogen cyanide and can inhibit tyrosinase activity in vivo, eliminate pigmentation, freckles, dark spots. So, it can produce beautifying effect on the skin.

止咳平喘作用

潤腸通便作用

抗癌腫作用

苦杏仁中所含的脂肪油可使皮膚角質層軟化,潤燥護膚,有保護神經末梢血管和組織器官的作用,並可抑殺細菌。

被酶水解所生成的氰氫酸能夠抑制體內的活性酪氨酸酶,消除色素沉著、雀斑、黑斑等,從而達到美容的效果。

Actions & Indications:

主治﹕

for arresting coughing and asthma, expelling phlegm, help bowel movements.

降氣止咳平喘,潤腸通便。用於咳嗽氣喘,胸滿痰多,血虛津枯,腸燥便秘。

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕

amygdalin

苦杏仁甙 (杏素; 苦杏仁素)

fat

脂肪油

emulsin

苦杏仁酶

amygdalase

苦杏仁甙酶

prunase

櫻葉酶

estrone

雌酮

α-estradiol

α-雌二醇

γ-estradiol

γ-雌二醇

desmasterol

鏈甾醇

vitamin E

維生素 E

vitamin C

維生素 C

vatamin P

維生素 P

calcium

phosphorus

iron

protein

蛋白質

fat

脂肪

sugar

Dosage:

用量﹕

 

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例﹕

Flu with wind cold type syndrome: use xing su san

風寒咳嗽: 杏蘇散

Modern Research:

現代研究﹕

Apricot seeds contain abundance of fat. It can lower cholesterol.

杏仁含有豐富的脂肪油,有降低膽固醇的作用。

Toxicity & Cautions:

毒素與禁忌﹕

Xing ren contain hydrogen cyanide which is a strong toxin. Eating 20 to 30 piece may cause toxic reaction even death. The toxin can be hydrolyzed in cooking and can render it non toxic. It is not recommended for small children.

100 g apricot kernels can decompose and can release 100 ~ 250 mg of hydrogen cyanide . Hydrocyanic acid lethal dose is 60 mg. Eating ten so pieces of apricot seed can cause poisoning in children.

Do not use in patients for cough with yinxu (yin deficient) and with loose bowels.[1]

北杏含氰化氢 (其水溶液稱為氫氰酸),食二,三十粒已可令人中毒,甚至致命,但加熱煮過後氰化氢會被分解掉。小兒忌服。

100g苦杏仁分解釋放氫氰酸100~250mg。氫氰酸致死劑量為60mg,故口服十幾顆苦杏仁即可引起兒童中毒。

陰虛咳嗽及便溏泄者忌用。【1】

[1] Zhong Guo Yao Dian 2000 Edition, Page 160 中國藥典2000年,160頁。  

 

Nanxing (southern xing ren, Prunus dulcis) also called tian xing ren meaning sweet xing ren.

Bei xing ren (northern xing ren, Prunus armeniaca) is also called ku xing ren meaning bitter xing ren.

Nan xing ren (southern xing ren, Prunus dulcis) is milder and is suitable for older people with weaker bodies and with cough and asthma.  Nan xing ren also contains less amygdalin, thus it is not as effective in arresting cough and asthma.

Bei xing ren (northern xing ren, Prunus armeniaca) is stronger in property, It is suitable for stronger and younger people and in strong syndromes.

 

南杏仁 (Prunus dulcis) 味甘又稱甜香仁南杏 性平,力較緩,適用於老人 體虛及虛勞咳喘又甜杏仁(南杏) 所含之苦杏仁甙較少,故鎮咳平喘的作用較差。

 

北杏仁(Prunus armeniaca) 味苦又稱苦杏仁(處方大多指苦杏仁,即北杏仁);北杏力較大 ,適用於壯人,實証。

 

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Last update: Dec 29, 2014; 11 p.m. LAH